You are here:



Crowd Power – Who is the Crowd?

This report is the first of its kind for the sector, exploring not only the profiles of those funding energy access-related crowdfunding campaigns – across donation, reward, debt and equity crowdfunding platforms – but also their motivation to contribute. The report captures data from over 900 individual donors and investors, based in over 10 countries.

Authors: Davinia Cogan, Irene Maffini, Simon Collings

Productive use of energy in African micro-grids: technical and business considerations

This report is part of a series of reports being developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Energy 4 Impact in support of the Power Africa Beyond the Grid Program. It is a resource entrepreneurs and developers can use to understand the technical and business model challenges related to PUE in smaller micro-grids. It examines best practices for promoting PUE and the business models used by developers. The report focuses on small agricultural processing, and small industrial and commercial loads.

Authors: Samuel Booth, Xiangkun Li, and Ian Baring-Gould, National Renewable Energy Laboratory & Diana Kollanyi, Abishek Bharadwaj and Peter Weston, Energy 4 Impact

Crowd Power – Success & Failure: The Key to a Winning Campaign

The third paper in a series of reports from its Crowd Power programme on energy access related crowdfunding in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, Crowd Power: Success & Failure – The Key to a Winning Campaign is intended to offer campaign-makers, working in the off-grid energy space, the tools and knowledge to develop a successful crowdfunding campaign.

Authors: Davinia Cogan & Simon Collings


This report features a study of 172 micro-enterprises in Uganda to understand the case for off-grid appliances.

Author: Makena Ireri

CROWD POWER: Can the Crowd Close the Financing Gap?

This report, the second of a series, looks at the energy access related crowdfunding across donation, reward, debt and equity platforms, and showcases examples of successful campaigns by WakaWaka, BuffaloGrid, and Okra Solar, among others. To download the first Crowd Power report, click here.

Authors: Davinia Cogan & Simon Collings


This study in 500 schools across 10 districts in Uganda reviewed the continuing relevance and impact of Energy 4 Impact's programmes, highlighting challenges and opportunities for the future.

Authors: Makena Ireri & Simon Collings

The Africa & Middle East Alternative Finance Benchmarking Report

This report examines the main barriers to scaling up green mini-grids in sub-Saharan Africa and how developers are overcoming these barriers. It also makes recommendations on how the African Development Bank can support the mini-grid sector. For an online resource on green mini-grids please refer to the Green Mini Grid Help Desk.

Authors: Energy 4 Impact (Peter Weston, Shashank Verma, Abishek Bharadwaj, Linda Onyango) and INENSUS (Nico Peterschmidt, Michael Rohrer)
Published by: African Development Bank

Green Mini-Grids in Sub-Saharan Africa: Analysis of barriers to growth and the potential role of the African Development Bank in supporting the sector

This report explains the main barriers to scaling up green mini-grids in Sub Saharan Africa and how developers are overcoming these barriers. It also makes recommendations on how the African Development Bank can support the mini-grid sector. For an online resource on green mini-grids please refer to the Green Mini Grid Help Desk

Authors: Energy 4 Impact (Peter Weston, Shashank Verma, Abishek Bharadwaj, Linda Onyango) and INENSUS (Nico Peterschmidt, Michael Rohrer) Published by: African Development Bank

Decentralized Electrification and Development

This publication contains an article by Energy 4 Impact on the benefits of pay-as-you-go photovoltaic solar energy in Rwanda.

Published by: Veolia

Crowd Power: Mapping the Market for Energy Access

This report reveals how crowdfunding for energy access is a niche market segment, with only $3.4 million raised for individuals, charities, NGOs and social enterprises in Africa and Asia in 2015.

Authors: Davinia Cogan & Simon Collings

How do Energy Micro-Businesses Grow?

A study of the key features and factors that lead to growth in micro-enterprises.
The report presents the results of in-depth interviews conducted with 17 micro-businesses supported by the Developing Energy Enterprises Programme (DEEP).

Authors: Lennart Bångens & Simon Collings

Running a Business with Solar PV

An analysis of the products available on the market and business development opportunities in the solar sector in Tanzania.

Author: Marc Laperche


Heat Light and Power for Refugees: Saving Lives, Reducing Costs

The Moving Energy Initiative's flagship report presents for the first time estimates of the volume and costs of energy used in situations of forced displacement worldwide. The report looks at the need for an overhaul in the way energy is managed within the humanitarian sector and shows how new approaches could benefit refugees and displaced people, host countries and the environment.

Authors: Glada Lahn and Owen Grafham, Chatham House

Click here to download the executive summary.

The Energy Situation in the Dadaab Refugee Camps, Kenya

Thi paper presents the main findings from an in-depth survey of energy provision and consumption in Dadaab refugee camps in Kenya. It present the main findings from field studies, considers critical questions which require further consideration, and proposes recommendations for how to further this research agenda in the camps in question.

Author: Stephen Okello

Private-Sector Engagement The Key to Efficient, Effective Energy Access for Refugees

This paper is one of a series of ‘toolkits’ developed by MEI partners, which looks at how private-sector actors that operate with the intention of generating profits could play a role in alleviating challenges associated with scaling up or optimising energy access in refugee and internally displaced person settings.

Author: Lindsay van Landeghem

Stimulating Solutions to Energy Access Through the Use of Innovation Prizes

This paper examines some of the major problems relating to energy access and challenges the assumption that prizes are an easy way to solve these problems.

Author: Simon Collings

Assessment of the Briquette Market in Kenya

This assessment was conducted to gain a better understanding of the businesses operating in the biomass briquette sector and the type of interventions that are required to move the programme forward. The study also reviews other initiatives taking place in the sector in Kenya.

Authors: Yaron Cohen & Allan Marega, Mareco LTD

Final Report: Terminal Evaluation of the Developing Energy Enterprises Project (DEEP) in East Africa

For 5 years, the DEEP programme has supported the development of small energy companies in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. This report assesses the results of the program, outlines the objectives, whether they were achieved or not, and demonstrates the relevance and lasting impact of the project. Lessons learned from this experience and tips for entrepreneurs are also shared throughout this report.


Author: Restio Energy (Pty) Ltd

Toolkit - Energy Programme Implementation: Review of Household Clean Energy Technology for Lighting, Charging and Cooking in East Africa – Kenya and Tanzania

This toolkit has been designed as a resource document for the African Wildlife Foundation (AWF) and Jane Goodall Institute (JGI) to implement clean energy projects at the household level in conservation areas in Kenya and Tanzania. The toolkit will guide the user through the steps of designing and implementing an energy programme. The toolkit can be used to inform the larger conservation community and donors who are considering implementing projects in the household energy sector.

Author: Laura Clough, Kavita Rai et. al.

Energy 4 Impact’s Experience of Working with Women Entrepreneurs in East Africa

This short paper draws on our experience of working with women entrepreneurs in East Africa under the Developing Energy Enterprises Programme (DEEP). It provides an overview of the outcomes and impacts of our work, especially in relation to linking female entrepreneurs with finance.

Authors: Phyllis Kariuki & Patrick Balla


The Empowered Entrepreneur Training Handbook provides the tools for a six-day training course aimed at strengthening professional and leadership skills of entrepreneurs. It has been designed to support organizations currently working with (or planning to work with) women entrepreneurs and sales agents in domestic energy.